Lithium ion batteries versus supercapacitor

Super Capacitor batteries have always been the envy of batteries for a couple of very good reasons. They are very fast to charge and discharge. Some have dry electrolytes which means that there is no end to the amount of cycles that can be achieved. These characteristics are a just a dream for chemical batteries which are often limited to fewer than 5,000 cycles and have a very slow relative charge and discharge time. Up until this point though, a chemical battery has been able to take the lead in terms of energy. Batteries are about volumes and capacitors are about surface area. A good metaphor is an open-top glass vase and a normal bottle, with a thin neck, both full of water. The vase is like the capacitor. When its tipped over, all the water comes out immediately and you can fill it up fast too. In electrical terms, all the available stored energy comes out, a high power rating, all at once. The bottle on the other hand, is like the battery and when tipped the water comes out of its neck at a limited rate and it takes much longer to empty. The same is true of filling them both up or recharging them again.

For example, on a cold morning, you may have difficulty starting your car. The cold, lead acid battery can’t provide enough energy, all at once, to turn over the starter motor. If you attach a supercapacitor to the battery though, you can charge up the capacitor from the battery for a few minutes and then discharge this electricity much faster, and start the engine. Another example is where the battery and capacitor work together combining their capabilities. A bus might need a lot of power when its accelerating, but batteries might be unable to help. Super-capacitors already charged from the battery though, can dump enough energy on that electric motor to make sure acceleration goes without a hitch. The bus has regenerative braking, but its lithium ion batteries are unable to absorb the charge fast enough. Luckily the capacitors can rapidly absorb all the electrical energy from the brakes first and then feed it at an appropriate rate to the lithium-ion batteries. This teaming up of battery and capacitor is only a temporary phenomenon however.

The arrival on the scene of graphene has caused capacitors to suddenly have a significant amount of energy density instead of simply power. This is a key distinction. Until this point, a chemical battery had energy but not power while the capacitor has power but not energy. This relationship is now undergoing rapid transformation. The key relationship is the energy on a capacitor in joules is proportional to half the capacitance (in farads) times the voltage squared.

Careful examination of the components of a capacitor have resulted in incredible breakthroughs in two areas in that formula. In one case, represented by Eestor, a Texas based capacitor company headed up by CEO, Ian Clifford, has managed to combine a very high functioning dielectric, barium titanate, between electric plates with a dry electrolyte at very high voltages. Eestor’s voltages are as high as 3,500 volts, meaning that the capacitors have a significant amount of energy capacity, rivaling the lithium-ion battery. Even a single, 1 Farad capacitance at 3,500 volts means the capacitor is holding 1.7 kilowatt hours of electrical energy. These particular, disruptive capacitors are addressing the grid demand/supply smoothing market and will have few competitors.

The impact of Edison Power is to increase the capacitance or Farads using graphene and emphasizing the surface area issue with this new approach with the result that you also obtain an elevated energy storage level. It’s clear that in this environment, a safe, cheap, fast charging and discharging, electrical energy storage device (EESD) that can cycle endlessly has huge advantages. Maybe lithium’s days are numbered?

The Introduction to a Super Capacitor Battery

One of the most critical aspects of an uninterruptible power supply (UPS) is its standby or back-up battery system, where a super capacitor battery is now beginning to play a role.
A super capacitor battery resembles a regular capacitor except that it offers high capacitance in a small package. Energy storage is by means of static charge rather than an electro-chemical process, inherent in lead-acid uninterruptible power supply batteries. Applying a voltage differential on the positive and negative plates charges the super capacitor (this concept is similar to an electrical charge that builds up when walking on a carpet).
Their design makes them ideal for small uninterruptible power supply installations whereby they are being utilised in favour of a battery set or to reduce the potential for battery discharge during momentary mains power failures.
The amount of energy that can be stored depends upon the active material used in the design of a super capacitor. Potentially, it can achieve up to 30kW of stored energy.
A super capacitor (also referred to as electric double layer capacitor, electrochemical double layer capacitor or ultra capacitor) consists of two electrodes constructed from a highly activated carbon material, which may be woven. Whereas a regular capacitor consists of conductive foils and a dry separator, the super capacitor crosses into battery technology by using special electrodes and some electrolyte. There are three types of electrode materials suitable for the super capacitor: high surface area activated carbons, metal oxide and conducting polymers. The high surface electrode material, also called Double Layer Capacitor (DLC), is least costly to manufacture and is the most common. It stores the energy in the double layer formed near the carbon electrode surface.
The carbon activated electrodes provide a large reticulated area upon which an active material such as Ruthenium Oxide is deposited. The material provides an enormous area, for example, 1000 square meters per gram of material used. Cellulose paper with polymeric fibers to provide reinforcement is typically used as the separator between the electrodes. Electrolyte is usually diluted Sulphuric Acid. Ruthenium Oxide is converted into Ruthenium Hydroxide by a chemical reaction and this enables energy to be stored.
To operate at higher voltages, super capacitors are connected in series. On a string of more than three capacitors, voltage balancing is required to prevent any cell from reaching over-voltage.
Energy within a super capacitor is quickly available – and this is one of its greatest advantages. When coupled to an existing battery set, they can inhibit battery cycling for momentary interruptions, which helps extend the working life of the set. A super capacitor’s working life is typically ten years (double that of an average UPS battery). They can also operate over a wide temperature range (minus 30 to 45 degrees centigrade).
The charge time of a super capacitor is about 10 seconds. The ability to absorb energy is, to a large extent, limited by the size of the charger. The charge characteristics are similar to those of an electrochemical battery. The initial charge is very rapid; the topping charge takes extra time. Provision must be made to limit current when charging an empty super capacitor.
In terms of charging method, the super capacitor resembles the lead-acid battery. Full charge occurs when a set voltage limit is reached. But unlike the electrochemical battery, the super capacitor does not require a full-charge detection circuit. Super capacitors take as much energy as needed. When full, they stop accepting charge. There is no danger of overcharge or ‘memory’.
A super capacitor battery is relatively expensive in terms of cost per watt. Some design engineers argue that the money would be better spent providing a larger battery by adding extra cells.For more information,please visit our company – GTCAP.

Related Reading:
Ceramic Chip Capacitor    Cell Super Capacitor

The Modern Use of Ceramics

Ceramics as a material were initially used by the scientists in the space industry. They used the ceramic sheets on the outside to create a heat shield against the high temperatures which were generated when the shuttles were entering the earths atmosphere. Once the ceramics as material was popular its first use was in the ball bearings industry where they used the ceramic material to make ball bearings which were being used wherever there were high intense heat situations.

Now the ceramic industry is a large industry with the ceramics being used in every conceivable form ranging form the flooring industry where ceramic tiles are popular to the high end aerospace industry. Initially the ceramics were the refractory material which is still used in the flooring industry but for the high end uses there were hybrids developed like the silica carbide and the silica nitride. These ceramics have advantages over the traditional steel or other materials. Ceramics are corrosion resistant as well as they are heat resistant and of course they much better at bearing heavier loads than steel. It is for this specific reason that the ceramics have been used by the industry even in the medicine world. Specific for bone implants and orthopedic restorations the ceramic material is used as it is very hard and tough to sustain pressures.

Ceramics as material is been continually evolved to make sure that in nowadays world it is environment friendly and can be easily disposed off also. These materials are hard and hence pose challenges when they are recycled as they cannot break down easily. So there is more research being done nowadays to look into this aspect of the ceramics. In fact one of the major uses of ceramic has been in the cosmetic dentistry industry especially the porcelain veneers. Porcelain veneers are used by the cosmetic dentists makes new veneers for use on their patients. Porcelain veneers have a vitreous and glassy feel and that is why the look good on the tooth for a glassy white finish as dental crowns. The other major use of ceramics is now being done in the semiconductors world. The integrated chip circuit’s that are used computers and other high techs gadgets have ceramic material. The ceramic material is also used in manufacturing of insulator and Ceramic Chip Capacitor.

 

Related Reading:Cell Super Capacitor

 

 

A Power Capacitor As A Super Capacitor Battery

Power capacitors work by acting as a reserve power bank; they store the charge rather than being the source of power such as the Super Capacitor Battery. It will act as a buffer so that that the power being delivered to the amplifiers will not drop below the recommended voltages and be steady therefore reducing the risk of damage to the components. So what power capacitor to choose? After doing a bit of research, the general rule seems to be 1 farad per 1000 watts of power that your system is running at. So using that, a 1.5 farad power capacitor should be ideally suited to a 1500 watt system. There is a large selection of power capacitors available out there. The capacitor requires a 12 volt positive from the battery and a separate ground, to the amplifier; so that the 12 volt positive is ‘inline’ with the terminal from the battery and the amplifier. The amplifier 12 volt positive is then taken from the capacitor while the amplifier is usually grounded separately as it is important to use as short a ground cable as possible to reduce any potential ground interference.

Power capacitors will not always be of help when you are listening to music, if the lights for example dim down, and stay dim, this indicates there is a deficiency of power and there are other methods of solving the problem, it could potentially be that the battery is not able to generate a charge sufficient enough to meet the demands, so installing a super capacitor battery is usually the common solution. It is also important to check that the current alternator can produce a charge that will be sufficient with a larger battery.

So in conclusion, there is no hard or fast answer to if a capacitor is necessary or not. However capacitors may have benefits if used appropriately. Select a super capacitor battery is really important.

 

Related Reading:High Voltage Ceramic Capacitor       Metallized Film Capacitor

 

How Capacitors Work

Capacitors, which were previously known as condensers, are electrical components that store electric charge temporarily. Although capacitors may come in various shapes and sizes, they all have one function in common, storing electrical charge. The capacitor has two terminals that are separated by a non-conducting substance called dielectric. The dielectric can be made of film, paper plastic or air whereas the terminals can be made of aluminium or other conductive metals. One can even make capacitors at home by using two pieces of aluminium foil and a piece of paper.

The amount of charge that a capacitor can store, which can also be called its capacitance, is measured in units called farads. A capacitor unlike a battery can take only a fraction of a second to completely discharge. A battery may however take minutes to do so. Due to this feature of capacitors, they are often used in the electronic flash on cameras. When you click a picture the flash come and goes off immediately. This is a good example of a capacitor discharging all its stored energy in a fraction of a second. When the flash is not clicked, the battery charges it up and it discharges this energy when a picture is clicked using flash. This however can be dangerous as capacitors such as those in television sets can contain large amount of charge. Therefore, if you were to open your TV set and touch the fully charged capacitor it could kill you.

Although any non-conductive material can be classified as dielectric, only specific materials are used to construct capacitors depending how it will be applied. The dielectric can dictate what type of capacitor it would be and its application. The type and size of the dielectric used would determine the application of the capacitor. Some capacitors may be ideal for high frequency applications whereas others may be better at high voltage applications. They can be used for a variety of applications ranging from torch lights to huge capacitors that can power buses. Capacitors that use air as a dielectric material in them can be used for radio tuning circuits. Using Metallized Film Capacitor can be commonly found in timer circuits such as alarm clocks and glass and are often used as a dielectric material in capacitors that require high voltage applications. To learn more about how capacitors work or find where you could purchase them, you can visit our company at GTCAP.

 

Related Reading:Wet Tantalum Capacitor

Aluminum Electrolytic Capacitor and Tantalum Electrolytic Capacitor

An electrolytic capacitor is a special type of capacitor that uses electrolytes as part of its plate whereby it conducts alternating current while at the same time blocking direct current, storing energy and filtering signals in accordance to their frequencies. Majority of electrolytic capacitors can be operated with low voltage to safeguard the capacitor. They have a large capacity that enables them to store large energy amounts and are therefore mostly used in powers supplies.

There are two types that are mostly used, that is: aluminum electrolytic capacitor and tantalum electrolytic capacitor. Tantalum capacitors are mostly used due to their high performance and are generally more costly as compared to the aluminium type. Aluminium electrolyte capacitors are made using aluminium foils one with a layer of insulating aluminium oxide. Thinness of this layer allows for high capacitance in effect hence higher energy density. The electrolyte used in many electrolytic capacitors has a mixture of sodium borate and boric acid in balanced proportions to ensure that there is balance between chemical stability and ensure that electrical resistance is minimal. The electrolyte may be highly corrosive requiring safety procedures to be an working with it by ensuring availability of appropriate protective gadgets as a precautionary measure. Many electrolytes contain water which serves to lower series resistance. Some electrolytes used in electrolytic capacitors are non-aqueous using little amount of water and weak acid thus less corrosive. The acids used in the electrolytes usually contain organic acids or some inorganic acids and at times have ammonium and metal salts. There are as well, other solvent based electrolytes that are mainly based in alkanolamines. Capacitors especially those of aluminium type may change over time with a tolerance of about 0.2. On the other hand, Tantalum capacitors are more stable comparatively with a higher tolerance rate. It have many conditions that determine their value such as the thickness of the dielectric area.Usually, the dielectric in electrolytic capacitors mostly depends on on the metal oxide layer: its formation and maintenance. Electrolytic capacitors will fail if the water contained therein evaporates. It may come in different varieties such as the Aluminium Electrolytic Capacitor which have corrosive liquid and they require constant rejuvenating voltage to avoid their inability to withstand high voltage. For more information,please visit our company of GTCAP.

 

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We Need a Long Life Tantalum Capacitor

The modern world would languish in pain if Tantalum were absent. It was used to light up entire cities in the past as Tantalum the element was used in the manufacturing of filaments for light bulbs before Tungsten took over its application. Could you imagine if your cell phone was still the, ¨Brick Phone¨, of 80´s fame? What if you had to have a truck to carry your personal computer around with you? Could you imagine a 60¨ Inch CRT TV? Do you like that portable GPS system? How about those large hearing aids?

Currently the amount of Tantalum mined is approximately 1,160 tons annually. Capacitors alone use up 551 tons of the annual production. By the year 2030, the amount needed for capacitors will rise to an estimated 1410 tons. Do you see what I see? The future needs of Tantalum far outweigh the current amount mined. A few years ago Tantalum became known as a conflict metal because of its illegal mining in the Congo. Currently most of its production is coming out of Australia with Brazil and Canada a distant second and third.

Today, this Rare Technical / Strategic metal is used in many applications. In fact our modern 21st Century society would not be the same without Tantalum. Tantalum capacitors are small, powerful and suitable for high-frequency ranges. Every electronic device around you uses Tantalum capacitors. Tantalum has also made it possible for long term medical implants because it is non-toxic and does not react with body fluids. This rare metal is also used as a high temperature alloy in aircraft turbines because of its high melting point. Our company provide you a Long Life Tantalum Capacitor, want more information,please visit our company of GTCAP.

 

 

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Introduction to the Capacitors

A capacitor is a type of electrical reservoir that stores and releases electric energy. This type of item is used in the production of many devices, such as amplifiers, computers, televisions, radios etc. Since they basically host an electric charge, their voltage and capacities can apply to a large variety of needs. Producers use a lot of materials to create capacitors according to the area of usage.

The aluminum electrolytic capacitor is used for the stronger applications and the power-supply filters. It is not very expensive and has a tolerance of 20%. This means that they normal value of the part can vary higher or lower than the value displayed on the label. One of the most significant issues in this case is represented by the liquid inside, which can dry and prevent the capacitor from working. The liquid can also leak and destroy the rest of the components. Furthermore, the electrolytic capacitors can explode if they are connected in a wrong manner, they can leak current, do not have a long lifespan and do not resist to high temperatures. The tantalum capacitors that need to fit a large capacitance value in a tiny space can easily use tantalum capacitors. Extra attention should be given in order not to wire the capacitor backwards or the polarity might destroy it. You can recognize a bad capacitor by the silvery fluid released. Usually, capacitors are designed as sandwiches of insulators placed between 2 layers of metal. An insulator is made out of a material called “dielectric” and it determines the general behavior of the capacitor. The devices that have a ceramic dielectric have smaller values and can reach even a thousand picofarads. An interesting thing about High Voltage Ceramic Capacitor is that they have great capacitance stability when it comes to a large temperature range. Are you looking for a reliable provider of high voltage ceramic capacitor? You are only one step away, click on the links to visit our website!

 

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Ceramic Chip Capacitor – How to Accurately Test It

Today I will talk about the high voltage resin coated Ceramic Chip Capacitor. In computer monitor, it is frequent used in the screen voltage line at the crt board. When it fails, it can cause erratic or intermittently raster bright and dim and sometimes no display. Adjusting the flyback transformer screen control will not solve this problem. You can isolate the problem as whether if it cause by a defective fly back or G2 line at crt board. Remove the G2 wire from circuit and measure the screen voltage with a digital multimeter- it should have a constant voltage. If the voltage is not stable suspect the fly back. If it OK then trace the screen voltage circuit. Usually this circuit consist of only resistors and capacitors. Sometimes a defective crt socket might cause this type of problem also!

Many times a tech can’t solve this intermittent or no display problem is because their digital capacitance and ohmmeter measured OK on the capacitors. A ‘missed’ in checking this capacitors will caused the technician can’t solve the problem, unless he direct replace the capacitor. An intermittent capacitor can pull down the screen voltage causing the display problem. If you have the analog insulation tester or meter, the panel will show a short circuit when certain voltage are pump in to check the high voltage capacitor. The voltages that you can select is depends on the brand or model you buy. Some have the range of 50v to 1000v and some have the range from 100v to 500v. It is optional whether you should have one. If you have one then it would be an added advantage for you. The other option that you have is to direct replace the suspected capacitor. For more about ceramic chip capacitor at GTCAP.

 

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Introduction to the Wet Tantalum Capacitor

A capacitor is a type of electrical reservoir that stores and releases electric energy. This type of item is used in the production of many devices, such as amplifiers, computers, televisions, radios etc. You can find some of the components mentioned above in almost all electronic circuits. Since they basically host an electric charge, their voltage and capacities can apply to a large variety of needs. Producers use a lot of materials to create capacitors according to the area of usage.

Aluminum electrolytic capacitor is used for the stronger applications and the power-supply filters. It is not very expensive and has a tolerance of 20%. This means that they normal value of the part can vary higher or lower than the value displayed on the label.

One of the most significant issues in this case is represented by the liquid inside, which can dry and prevent the capacitor from working. The liquid can also leak and destroy the rest of the components. Furthermore, the electrolytic capacitors can explode if they are connected in a wrong manner, they can leak current, do not have a long lifespan and do not resist to high temperatures. Usually, capacitors are designed as sandwiches of insulators placed between 2 layers of metal. An insulator is made out of a material called “dielectric” and it determines the general behavior of the capacitor. The devices that have a ceramic dielectric have smaller values and can reach even a thousand picofarads. An interesting thing about them is that they have great capacitance stability when it comes to a large temperature range. The polyester film capacitor has a greater capacitance value and it is very reliable. Its capacitance increases when the temperature does, making it incompatible with sensitive circuits. These capacitors can be found in various locations and do not cost very much.

The wet tantalum capacitor that need to fit a large capacitance value in a tiny space can easily use tantalum capacitors. They are polarized. Extra attention should be given in order not to wire the capacitor backwards or the polarity might destroy it. Are you looking for a reliable provider of Wet Tantalum Capacitor? You are only one step away, click on the links to visit our company of GTCAP!